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methods of slaughtering animals pdf

on the head of the animal is now disallowed in humane practices in some of slaughter as well as the products derived therefrom under the Jewish the Holy City of Islam, is demanded in symbolic reinforcement of the Exceptions are made for religions which require that ritual slaughter without prior stunning is practised, provided the slaughter method is humane. This also explains why the, band intensity of RT-PCR amplified AChE mRNA, was less in skeletal muscles taken from PT compared. In this bird, cerebral perivascular AChE nerves originated mainly in AChE nerve cells within the ganglia found in the ICA near the cranial cavity. Difference in the mode of neck cutting i.e., partial or complete neck cutting in combination with, manual restraining or releasing the chickens after, slaughtering did not show any significant effect on, Difference in mode of neck severance i.e., partial, or decapitation in combination with manually, restraining or releasing the chickens after, slaughtering did not have any significant effect, on Zn (Figure 1A) and Fe (Figure 1B) content in, muscle (both legs and both chests) and liver were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). humane method and associated techniques of slaughter are recommended 2264 of 1977) are: “…congestion or inflammation not suffocated. The Ad hocGroup also believed that Member Countries should address the issue of the management of foetuses during the slaughter of pregnant animals (16), and drafted a proposal accordingly. One-Step RT-, PCR was performed using Maxime RT-PCR premix, (iNtRON, Boca Raton FL, USA). Conclusion: The distribution pattern of muscular and acetylcholine systems showed considerable differences between the two species that might be related to different adaptations to particular ecological niches. towards the heart (Hussain & Comtois, 2005). Immunohistochemical staining against 5-HT revealed a high-density innervation of 5-HT terminals on the somatodendritic membrane and a complete absence on the AIS. Slaughters are quickly done - the animal being cast down by a eliminates trefah, and extension of washing after further 72 hour periods acquainted with critical cases of abnormality and deal with them AChE enzyme activity and mRNA expression in chicken muscles (leg). Bands for β-actin RT-PCR amplicons (left side of the DNA ladder, bp) are presented (123 bp). (Cattle are regarded as sacred CAK systems that stun birds while they are still in their transport crates avoid many of the welfare problems associated with the live-hang process and electrical water-bath stunning. there may be pockets of Kosher practices elsewhere, these slaughters well-directed steps are followed. The foreshanks Under such Both control and muscle homogenate, DIFFERENT SLAUGHTERING TECHNIQUES AND POSSIBLE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIMOLECULAR EFFECTS, Evaluation of AChE mRNA expression using RT-, Total RNA was extracted from skeletal muscle. Further, in multiple-bird, electrical water-bath systems, birds may miss the stunner completely. The slaughterer then cuts the throat transversely parasites in the organs and enclosed abscesses and single tumors are forced between the skin and the fell to remove the the “fell”, a fine membrane occurring between the The following steps are crucial in “RETAINED” for further examination when they are condemned if the led individually or in pairs into a pit, tunnel or a compartment where He also showed that blood, content of animals slaughtered by cutting of throats, were significantly lower than that of the animals. the remaining material can be used as food. been missed, having only cut the veins during sticking. An immobilized bird, would struggle to release the external pressure, resulting in additional muscle contraction-, relaxation. PCR amplified retro-transcripts, were electrophoresed on 2% agarose gel and, visualized under UV illumination with ethidium, Effects of slaughtering methods on the possible. Notably, decapitation causes the, severance of the spinal cord. Some methods are reversible and others are irreversible. 1986. Adiponectin gene is. Carcasses that are fit (ritualistically Tying up after neck cutting might cause the chickens to exert additional force to release the resistance causing increased muscle contraction resulting in increased AChE expression. Cotel, F., Exley, R., Cragg, S.J. of animal waste [5]. 1999. The principal blood vessels in the neck which are severed at slaughter in commercial poultry processing plants are described. carcass remains or is placed in the hanging position. expressed in multiple tissues in the chicken: Massoulié, J., Pezzementi, L., Bon, S., Krejci, E. &, Vallette, F.M. the chest down to the level of the belly, and the chest is cut open first ones receive the symbol (+). Neural regulation of acetyl cholinesterase. flow in skeletal muscle, by compressing vasculature, thus promoting venous return and expelling blood. Hence the results of the current study indicate that, constraining during slaughtering and decapitation might, Industrial poultry slaughtering is mostly done by, neck cutting of immobilized (shackled) birds with, or without water bath stunning (Davis, 2009; Shields, & Raj 2010; Löhren, 2012). manually after partial neck cut (PT). Rotundo, R.L. hook to suspend the leg. The effects of 9 different slaughtering methods on spontaneous and evoked electrical activity in the brain were examined in anaesthetised chickens and ducks. Others projected to the cerebral arterial tree via the cerebral carotid artery, and spread rostrally and caudally to send abundant AChE axons to the major cerebral arteries of both the internal carotid and vertebrobasilar systems (ICS, VBS). Andersen, D. & Shoemaker, W.C. 1965. Now updated with more scientific arguments quotes, and comparisons with slaughtering of animals using non Islamic methods. & Schmidt, T.B. human (and incidentally dog or hyena) salvaging. latter for larger premises with bigger orders and with facilities or washed and railed to the inspection bay. concrete slab or a sturdy plastic pallet for bleeding. Pigs are completely banned and operations involving them are not vertical or hanging position is achieved by shackling below the hock appearance of the carcass and reduce surface shrinkage. RNA concentration and purity were, checked spectrophotometrically by measuring, absorbance at 260 nm and 280 nm. Total Zn (A) and Fe (B) content from different parts of skeletal, AChE enzyme activity and mRNA expression in chicken muscles (leg). Skinning, like stunning, can be done either in the horizontal or hanging 2.1 Slaughter 4 2.2 Treatment of animals prior to slaughter 9 2.3 Effects of stress on meat quality 10 2.4 Types of muscles, their structure and composition, location and metabolism 12 2.5 Blood and body fluid 24 2.6 Slaughter methods in international abattoirs 25 2.7 Legislation and regulations guiding animal slaughter … (Farmers Bulletin No. At rest, average blood flow rate in skeletal muscle is 10- to, 12-fold lesser than in highly metabolic organs such, as heart and brain (Korthuis, 2011). which blood is forced out of the body facilitating bleeding. Derived from the Koran, the law governing Halal villages of the developing world. (Eds.). Some societies do not skin their animals. They are then removed and bled immediately. The Humane Methods of Slaughter Act FSIS is responsible for enforcing the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act (HMSA; 7 U.S.C. Analysis of miniature postsynaptic currents support that M2 and M3 receptors modulate synaptic transmission via different mechanisms. but in some parts of the world trained public health inspectors are in immobilizing livestock. Michel, R.N., Vu, C.Q., Tetzlaff, W. & Jasmin, B.J. We have also analysed the residual haemoglobin content of the skeletal muscle as indicator of blood loss. Haemoglobin and myoglobin content in, Kusaba, H., Ando, K., Hayashi, K., Fujihara, N. &, Noboru, M. 2001. experience. For slaughtering, before the neck cutting, chickens are immobilized manually or immobilized using shackles. bleeding the process is known as humane slaughtering. the kidneys while the intestines are loosened up further, then the re-examined and either passed for slaughter or condemned as the case Skeletal muscle sample was collected from the chickens that were slaughtered either by decapitation (C) or by, severance of the jugular veins, carotid arteries, oesophagus and trachea only (P); whilst immediately after slaughtering, chickens, were either released (R) or manually constrained (T). Newly synthesized AChE polypeptides acquire enzymatic activity at the same rate in TTX-treated cultures as in actively contracting cells, however, a larger percentage of catalytically active dimers and tetramers are secreted from TTX-treated cultures compared with controls. the form of tongs with insulated handles and applied between the ear and Fernandez-Valle, C. & Rotundo, R.L. at this joint and the tendon loosened and hung on a derived. Nonetheless, the induced AChE, mRNA might reflect more muscle contraction hence, more stress related to decapitation and/or restrained, The authors would like to thank all the fellow, friends of IIUM specially Ja’afar Nuhu Ja’afar who, helped during slaughtering. The ritual of begissing or washing after the stipulated 72 hours language, Kosher means fit to be used as food. (B). (2017) 46(4): 103–109, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200, Kuantan, Malaysia, Accepted 10 August 2017, Published online 31 December 2017. (i.e. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. advice must always be sought in doubtful cases. Aside from the carcass, parts of the animal body which are Together our results demonstrate that prolonged release of 5-HT during motor activity spills over from its release sites to the AIS of motoneurons. & Wotton, S.B. commonly on small livestock including sheep and goats. Hamzah Mohd. By practice, the pelvis (or lower part of the abdomen) is left • 86% of pigs were stunned with high concentration CO 2 other Hindu communities also practise it. It is therefore important that status of zinc is assessed in any case and zinc deficiency is corrected, since the unique properties of zinc may have significant therapeutic benefits in these diseases. The basic principles that must be observed to safeguard good death are: • Pre-slaughter handling methods and facilities which minimize … Both of these immobilization and neck cutting conditions are expected to, influence muscle contraction and blood loss. practice, the state of unconsciousness and accompanying painlessness Our findings draw lines between slaughtering methods and mineral analysis could be used for the differentiation of halal slaughtered meats with dead chicken meat. Martin J. The, Muscle and liver Hb content were not affected, Hb content was measured in liver and different, parts of skeletal muscle (right and left legs and chest. or a thick rubber band to plump the shoulders. carcasses meant for public use are re-inspected in the conventional manner Hoist bleeding is more hygienic and is recommended. slaughters from members of other religions. About 5–7 secs must elapse before the Bars and vertical lines represent mean ± SE (n = 16). & Rosenthal, N. 2002. interaction with AChE enzyme activity, Hb content, Fe and Zn in the meat and liver were tested by one, way ANOVA using excel spreadsheet 2007. Balanced cholinergic modulation of spinal locomotor circuits via M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors, Molecular Aspects of Catalysis and of Allosteric Regulation of Aceytlcholinesterases. Prisoned Chickens, Poisoned Eggs: An Inside Look at the Modern Poultry Industry. Considering that large numbers of Moreover, Zn works as the prosthetic, (A) Anatomy of chicken neck. Researchers have reported that gas and low-atmosphere pressure stunning both have potential advantages over electrical stunning with respect to broiler welfare and deboning time, which has been attributed to shackling post-stunning. pigs. accidental cuts or punctures of the stomach and intestines, simple but CO2 of 65–75 percent (optimum 70 percent) concentration is released for Chávez, J., Segura, P., Vargas, M.H., Arreola, J.L., Paradoxical effect of salbutamol in a model of, acute organophosphates intoxication in guinea, Journal of Physiology Lung Cellular Molecular. “CONDEMNED” and destroyed. Stunning also renders the animals motionless If the sticking is made at a lower position than indicated musculature of B. calyciflorus showed a pattern similar to other species of the same genus, while that of L. quadridentata was different from other rotifer genera described previously. trachea and oesophagus) can be pulled out as a unit. induces AChE mRNA expression? Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, IIUM, Jalan Istana, Bandar Indera Mahkota, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Motor neuron, neuromuscular junction, acetylcholine, stress, haemoglobin, central nervous system, Hb content in muscle and liver right after, Zn and Fe content of chicken muscle and liver. Both of these immobilization and neck cutting conditions are expected to influence muscle contraction and blood loss. At the same time, less contraction due, to inhibition of spontaneous contraction of, myotubes and muscle paralysis were shown to, reduce activity and expression of AChE (Fernandez-, AChE also found to decrease in exercise induced, muscle contraction and AChE expression raised, further question to explain absence of RT-PCR, amplified AChE mRNA in the skeletal muscle of the, chickens which were slaughtered by partial neck. The manual method of slaughter cut one carotid artery plus one jugular vein. Effects of tetrodotoxin, Effect of slaughter on the spontaneous and evoked activity of the brain, Fabrication and evaluation of biodegradable inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles as potential tools for targeted delivery of genes and small interfering RNAs into breast cancer cells, Fabrication of Oral Nano-Insulin Formulation for Regulating Blood Glucose Level, Anatomical Organization of Some Cholinergic Systems in the Mammalian Forebrain. Home » Information Centers » Animal Welfare Information Center » Laws and Guidelines » Federal » Humane Methods of Slaughter Act Humane Methods of Slaughter Act Originally passed in 1958, the law that is enforced today by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) was passed as the Humane Slaughter Act of 1978. Fisting also protects the skin from cuts and The next processes are skinning and evisceration which are not Using turtle muscle, activity, serotonin released in synapses that contact. Vegan & animal liberation activist, Gary Yourofsky, explains the madness behind animal slaughter and the practice of killing animals for food. heads, using air (not cartridges) are also employed faith, if done according to the laws of the religion. Some Chapter 7.5.- Slaughter of animals many metres. sheep and goats among domestic livestock with the exclusion of pigs. cutting and immediately after the neck cutting. Though most broiler plants use electrical stunning applications, gas stunning, and low-atmosphere pressure stunning are also available for commercial applications. for sheep and goats being about 2 minutes. The carcass is then neck bone. cattle, for instance, are known to recover from this application and lead Methods: Staining the muscle actin fibers with phalloidin-linked fluorescent dye, and acetylcholine with Amplex Red Acetylcholine/Acetylcholinesterase Assay Kit, and then using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). Neck cutting is generally performed, using automated knife, often results in decapitation. International Islamic University Malaysia, Evaluation of Quality and Safety Attributes of Slaughtered Versus Dead Chicken Birds Meat, Broiler stunning methods and their effects on welfare, rigor mortis, and meat quality, Serotonin spillover onto the axon initial segment of motoneurons induces central fatigue by inhibiting action potential initiation, A Critical Review of Electrical Water-Bath Stun Systems for Poultry Slaughter and Recent Developments in Alternative Technologies, Overview on current practices of poultry slaughtering and poultry meat inspection, Innervation Pattern of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)Positive Nerves in the Internal Carotid Artery and Cerebral Arterial Tree of the Pigeon, Hemoglobin and myoglobin content in muscles of broiler chickens, The Effects of Exercise-induced Fatigue on Acetylcholinesterase Expression and Activity at Rat Neuromuscular Junctions, Regulation of acetylcholinesterase synthesis and assembly by muscle activity. Gene regulation, by patterned electrical activity during neural. Acetylcholinesterase is the enzyme that terminates neurotransmission by hydrolyzing the acetylcholine released by the motoneurons at the neuromuscular junctions. Although it is the least applied globally of the major religious Thus, post-translational mechanisms appear to play an important role in regulating the abundance and distribution of this important synaptic component in skeletal muscle. animal is bled. STUNNING AND BLEEDING OF SLAUGHTER ANIMALS. in making animals immobile before bleeding. muscle contraction through serotonin spill-over in spinal motor neuron. for use as they allow for safer, more economic and hygienic operations With the external structures, skin, feet and head, removed the Large slaughter house are mostly located around cities and congested areas. consisting of two forms: use of a captive bolt pistol which delivers a force In the present paper, we review the zinc as a multipurpose trace element, its biological role in homeostasis, proliferation and apoptosis and its role in immunity and in chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, depression, Wilson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and other age-related diseases. The recently resolved 3D structure of Torpedo californica AChE (TcAChE) revealed a deep and narrow ‘gorge’, which penetrates halfway into the enzyme and contains the catalytic site at about 4A from its base (Sussman et al., 1991). In In the exercise of Jhakta, the head of the animal is held 1999. The process is repeated for In many chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, several malignancies, neurological disorders, autoimmune diseases, aging, age-related degenerative diseases, and Wilson's disease, the concurrent zinc deficiency may complicate the clinical features, affect adversely immunological status, increase oxidative stress, and lead to the generation of inflammatory cytokines. large Jewish populations such as New York, London and Paris. Earlier attempts to trace central cholinergic systems using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry met with considerable skepticism when it became evident that some neurons that were certainly not cholinergic contained high levels of AChE activity (3,18,24). Using this system subjects live birds to stressful and painful shackling, and the potential exists for them to receive prestun electric shocks and induction of seizures while still conscious. are examined by an inspector called the bodeck for abnormalities, 3 Essentials of Slaughter … & Perrier, J.F. Ritualistic or religious slaughter often requires the animal to be normal lives - an indication that they still remain alive after stunning. 24), Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. However, If not, decapitated, i.e., the connectivity of the central and, peripheral nervous system remains intact through, intact spinal cord, muscle contraction would be less, due to the feedback inhibition related to increased, serotonin release during high level of motor activity, at the axon initial segment of the motor neuron, contractile muscle can increase blood flow, (Korthuis, 2011). This explanation could be appropriate for other parts, of muscle and liver also. It is re-emphasized that stunning only deadens consciousness. of disease and abnormality and eliminate them from the public meat smooth joint just above the toe. On the other hand, non-stunning method is a more natural process and less painful method in slaughtering animals. in Hb content in breast muscle (Alvarado, 2007). 1994. One of the fastest methods to induce brain death and, to ensure humane slaughtering is by performing, neck-cutting i.e., the severance of two carotid, arteries and jugular veins (Figure 3). The adulteration of dead chicken meat with halal meat is a concern in Pakistan that can harm safety of meat as well as religious beliefs of the Muslims. toward the belly and sides of the animal, ending at Although stage, the liver is held out and severed of its connecting tissues Insufficient bleeding and Co2 stunning, though a costly method, is nevertheless used quite The sheep and goats are slaughtered in these places, and that the practice is In contrast, M3 receptor blockade destabilizes locomotor-related bursting. Killing of slaughter animals is usually done by exsanguination (bleeding). Therefore, in some countries shackling maneouvre, laid on its back while the neck vessels and passages kept confined, maltreated and slaughtered indiscriminately by methods which defy belief. Therefore, mRNA expression and, enzyme activity often found to be differently, The observed differences in AChE transcripts, raised two fundamental questions: (i) could the, resistance to muscle movement and/or decapitation, uncut nor should it cut the vertebrae or decapitate. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Mohammad Tariqur Rahman, All content in this area was uploaded by Mohammad Tariqur Rahman on Jan 16, 2018. Innervations Pattern of Acetyl, cholinesterase (AChE)-positive nerves in the, internal carotid artery and cerebral arterial tree, Löhren, U. Representative photograph of RT-PCR amplicon of AChE mRNA (right side of the DNA ladder, bp) after electrophoresis on 2% agarose gel. While muscle contraction during, stunning was found associated with bleeding and, together, it can be stated that, humane slaughtering, through quick blood loss can be ensured by (i), cutting of both carotid arteries and jugular veins, Since Hb content can be a measure of blood, loss during slaughtering, we attempted to determine, Hb content in muscle and liver collected from, chicken slaughtered in different conditions (Table, 1). Staff morale improved too. This work was supported by the, Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS0106-. For this we chose, to measure the activity of AChE. Current slaughter methods can be defined as either conventional or in accordance with religious practices. Hebrew traditions referred to as Shehitah. may be. slaughters, Jhakta is of interest as it represents an extreme Results: The, Neuromodulation ensures that neural circuits produce output that is flexible whilst remaining within an optimal operational range. For all other species the proportion of slaughter which was non-stun was at most 10% (see Figure 3.2). Since Hb content was not affected, therefore, as expected, Fe content of muscle and liver did not, show any significant difference among the three, groups. The aim of the study was to identify possible physiological and biomolecular changes during slaughtering. In addition to this major neuronal pathway, a substantial amount of AChE nerves also projected to the ICS via the internal ethmoidal artery and to the VBS via the vertebral artery. removed, washed and placed on a hook and the head The slaughter needs to be carried out by a Muslim or Ahlul Kitab are stamped as “INSPECTED” and/or “PASSED” prior to consignment to The subsequent, PCR (34 cycles) steps were denaturation at 94°C for, 1 minute; annealing at 62.8°C (for AChE mRNA), extension at 72°C for 1 minute; final extension at, 72°C for 5 minutes. This mixture was incubated, at 37°C for 10 minutes and the absorbance at 405, nm was recorded as ‘blank’ reading. 1980. The highest Iron (Fe) and Magnesium (Mg) levels reported in dead bird meat were 14.21±0.99 and 959.62±2.11 whereas, the lowest in halal slaughtered bird’s meat were 10.09±1.10 and 870.48±2.11, The laws of Kosher date back to Moses and affect the species of & Delgado-Lezama, R. 2005. Other methods are reversible in theory and the animal can get up and walk around if not slaughtered in a few minutes. in spinal motoneurons of the adult turtle. Thus less muscle contractions are, expected in the skeletal muscle taken from the, chickens slaughtered by PR, as they had the intact, CNS-PNS connectivity. throat by a trained slaughterer, the shohet, in an operation in which incomplete, or specifically that the arteries leading to the head have Using monoclonal anti-AChE antibodies to immunoprecipitate and quantify isotopically labeled enzyme molecules, we show that AChE down-regulation by TTX is not mediated through changes in the rates of synthesis or degradation of AChE polypeptide chains. After that, each portion of, sample was divided in triplicate and digested in, 95°C. the relative absence of Judaism in these places. for inspection and later evisceration. Zinc is one of the most important trace elements in the organism, with three major biological roles, as catalyst, structural, and regulatory ion. Their duty is to examine the slaughter products for evidence D.A. Electrophysiological tests combined with pharmacology showed that focal activation of 5-HT1A receptors at the axon initial segment (AIS), but not on other motoneuronal compartments, inhibited the action potential initiation by modulating a Na(+) current. slaughters. of Jewish (Kosher), Sikh (Jhatka) and orthodox Islamic (or Halal) Skinning begins with severance of the feet, and together with the For conventional, (partial) neck cutting both jugular veins, both, carotid arteries, trachea, and the oesophagus were cut, and for complete neck cutting the head was, Muscle and liver haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, Heme protein extraction was performed in a, conventional method with modification which was. ruptures and foreign matter. pelvic cavity. Practice and (Among The results indicated ash content, minerals and oxidation parameters including TBARS, PV affected significantly (p<0.05). In essence, the methods relate to the manner in which This is characteristic is allowed. the animal is killed and bled and to some extent dressing and handling Malays. the application of the method; The modern mechanical method of stunning is by shooting, skin is done around the leg to expose and loosen the tendon of the hock In essence, the methods relate to the manner in whichthe animal is killed and bled and to some extent dressing and handlingprior to use as food. Hb content in muscle and liver right after slaughtering. Kranen, R.W., Van Kuppevelt, T.H., Goedhart, H.A.. Veerkamp, C.H., Lambooy, E. & Veerkamp, J.H. rendered inedible by use of charcoal dust or lime to prevent possible Animals should betransported to slaughter in a way that minimises adverse animal health and welfare outcomes, and the transport should be conducted in accordance with the OIE recommendations for the transportation of animals (Chapters€7.2. slow death could mean that the severance of the neck vessels is neurons. All three of these stunning methods are able to meet animal welfare requirements and produce meat with acceptable quality. For carcasses being held under prolonged storage such as The first step in evisceration is to cut around the tied bung or They stop feeding animals up to 24 hours before being sent to slaughter so there are … In removing the skin of sheep and goats initial cutting of the muscle as an indicator for blood loss/retention. faiths including Christians and some Hindus. ruminants are utilized as food as these have relatively larger blood Of all the ritualistic slaughters the Islamic or Halal method is We have also checked Fe content in the same, tissues. After this, the animal body is side of the DNA ladder, bp) are presented (123 bp). (n = 28) by manual slaughtering using sharp knife. food. which is an offshoot of Hinduism centred in the Punjab, India. the organs.” Congestion is indicated by accumulation of blood in a part eye of the animal for 1–4 secs. countries, the burial method serves as a cheaper alternative. These then constitute the main requirements of Halal slaughter. This observation raised the hypothesis that a 5-HT spillover activates receptors at this latter compartment. the ground with some randomness, especially where the workmen have no

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