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great wall of gorgan

Thus, due to its interaction with upper mentioned civilizations and cultures and its strategic location, carries important contents from the past. the 5th or 6th century). The Great Wal l of Gorgan, also known as the ‘Red Snake’, is a defense system located in the northern Iranian province of Golestan. 121-173. This was the time when the Persian Empire, under the Sassanian dynasty, was involved in a series of wars at its northern frontier, first against the Hephthalites or White Huns and later against the Turks. This wall is noted in the Historical documents as Eskandar Dam, Anushirwan Dam, Firouz Dam and Qezel Alan. Criterion (ii):  The Great Wall of Gorgan, and the associated extensive military infrastructure in its hinterland, is of a larger scale than any known purpose-built military monument of earlier times in the Near East. The Great Wall of Gorgan is particularly well preserved in the hilly landscape in the east. The Great Wall of Gorgan was used much longer than the better known Roman walls to keep enemies at bay. The Great Wall of Gorgan, Golestan Province, in northern Iran was built from 420s AD to 530s AD; it is then occupied until the 7th century. Like the frontiers of the Roman Empire and the Great Wall of China it deserves World Heritage status. Whether or not they were parts of a single barrier, the Gorgan and Tammisheh Walls and their associated forts certainly formed part of the same defensive system. Together with canals and associated settlement in the steppe north of the Gorgan Wall of an earlier period (c. 8th-5th centuries BC), they shed unique light on human interaction with the environment, the world’s largest inland Sea and the steppes of Eurasia. The Gorgan Wall and its associated ancient military monuments provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire. Excavations in Fort 4 have demonstrated that the original mud-brick walls of these, probably two-storey-high, buildings survive to a height of more than three metres. Tentative World Heritage Site (The Great Wall of Gorgan, masterpiece of human creative genius, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design, unique to a cultural tradition, object illustrates significant stage in human history, traditional human settlement or land-use, 2017–) This is all the more remarkable as this Empire stretched from modern south-east Turkey to Pakistan and from modern Dagestan (Russia) into the Arabian Peninsula. In order to enable construction works, canals had to be dug along the course of the defensive barrier, to provide the water needed for brick production. At the present point in time some of the monuments in questions still retain much of their original building materials, anyhow it is our aim to ensure much better protection of the authentic elements of this unique heritage. Écoutez ce livre audio gratuitement avec l'offre d'essai. 40 ha size. Criterion (iii): The Great Wall of Gorgan  and its associated fortifications of the Late Sassanid era (5th-7th centuries) constitute the greatest cluster of military monuments known from anywhere within the Sassanid Empire. The Great Wall of China is well known as the largest wall in Asia (or indeed the world). Le mur relie cet espace maritime aux montagnes du nord-est de l'Iran. The Great Wall of Gorgan and its associated earthwork, forts, brick kilns and canals still survive in part on an impressive scale. Les noms des biens figurent dans la langue dans laquelle les États parties les ont soumis. Nom local Fort ۴, Great Wall of Gorgan Position Central District, Iran La muraille de Gorgan, surnommée le Serpent rouge, est un système de défense de l'époque sassanide situé près de Gorgan, dans la province du Golestān, dans le nord-est de l'Iran, au sud-est de la mer Caspienne. MyChannel2016 Published August 25, 2016 2,389 Views The ‘Red Snake’ in northern Iran, which owes its name to the red colour of its bricks, is at least 195km long. In the early 7th century the Empire even controlled Yemen and, briefly, the eastern Levant. Thus, due to its interaction with civilizations and cultures and its strategic location, carries important contents from the past. The Great Wall of Gorgan is particularly well preserved in the hilly landscape in the east. Both walls employed large fired bricks of similar shape and size, both are lined by an earth bank and ditch (supplied with water by canals) and by batteries of virtually identical brick kilns, both are protected by similar forts and both run from the Alborz Mountains to the Caspian Sea. This decisive period of history saw the demise of the Western Roman Empire and the eventual emergence of the Caliphate, expanding at the expense of the Sassanid and Eastern Roman Empires. The Tentative Lists of States Parties are published by the World Heritage Centre at its website and/or in working documents in order to ensure transparency, access to information and to facilitate harmonization of Tentative Lists at regional and thematic levels. Log in; Skip to content. It is over a thousand years earlier than the stone and brick-built Great Wall of China (i,ii,iii,iv,vi); its contemporary and earlier Chinese counterparts were essentially earthworks, even if, of course, of impressive sophistication too, in terms, for example, of boosting an advanced signalling system. There was no stone or timber in the steppe, and in order to build a massive defensive barrier, resistant to winter rain, an estimated 200 million fired bricks, each weighing c. 20 kg, had to be produced. Criterion (iii): The Great Wall of Gorgan  and its associated fortifications of the Late Sassanid era (5th-7th centuries) constitute the greatest cluster of military monuments known from anywhere within the Sassanid Empire. 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Retrouvez The Great Wall of Gorgan: The History of the Ancient Near East’s Longest Defensive Wall et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. Criterion (i): The Great Wall of Gorgan posed exceptional engineering challenges. La muraille de Gorgan, surnommée le Serpent rouge, est un système de défense de l'époque sassanide situé près de Gorgan, dans la province du Golestān, dans le nord-est de l'Iran, au sud-est de la mer Caspienne. Wall as Part of A Large & Sophisticated Water Supply System The route of the Gorgan Wall and the associated canal had to follow a natural gradient, evidence for remarkable skills in hydraulic engineering by its creators. Much better preserved are those elements of the defensive system built of soil or mud-brick. Visitors still can appreciate here its position and how the Wall takes advantage of the natural topography; it normally occupies high ground, to facilitate surveillance and defence. Great wall of Gorgan with the names of "Red wall" or "Red Snake" is one of the most obvious Iranian architectural monuments, the third long wall of the world after the Great Walls of China and Germany. The Great Wall of Gorgan, the second biggest defensive wall in the world, was built in the Parthian and Sassanian periods. The Great Wall of Gorgan posed exceptional engineering challenges. The Great Wall of Gorgan was a Sassanian-era (224 to 651 CE) defense system located near modern Gorgan in the Golestan Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. The forts were filled with barracks of standardized design, suggesting that the Sassanian army was well organized. The Sassanid military barriers and fortifications in the Gorgan Plain provide evidence how effective defence, or the lack of it, could contribute to security and prosperity of empires. The Great Wall of Gorgan stretches for almost 200 km and is lined by 38 forts. While preservation varies from place to place and tends to be better in the east than in the west, the Wall is still recognisable as a distinct landscape feature for most of its course. Le mur relie cet espace maritime aux montagnes du nord-est de l'Iran. The route of the Gorgan Wall and the associated canal had to follow a natural gradient, evidence for remarkable skills in hydraulic engineering by its creators. The Great Wall of Gorgan: The History of the Ancient Near East's Longest Defensive Wall: Charles River Editors: Amazon.sg: Books At the same time, the Sassanid Empire also had the resources to create in the hinterland of the Wall a large city, Dasht Qal’eh, of 3 km2 interior size and with monumental architecture, notably brick pillar avenues. This wall relates to the late of Sassanid era which has been constructed to prevent from invading … The Great Wall of Gorgon is an incredible and sophisticated defensive construction located in north-eastern Iran; it has around 30 military forts, an aqueduct, and water channels that go along the route. TEHRAN – Stretched for almost 200 kilometers along northern Iran, the ancient Great Wall of Gorgan was constructed from 420s CE to 530s as a northern frontier of the then mighty Persian Empire, which was then ruled under Sassanids. The brick wall is lined by 38 forts, a canal, fed by a complex system of supplier canals, as well as a large number of brick kilns, in part preserved to the present day, not to mention fortresses and a large city in its hinterland. the 5th or 6th century). Whilst much of the brick wall itself has been robbed, some sections survive to up to 1.50 m height, whilst in others only the bottom courses remain. The Sassanid military barriers and fortifications in the Gorgan Plain provide evidence how effective defence, or the lack of it, could contribute to security and prosperity of empires, to their fall or survival. The Great Wall of Gorgan is the longest fort-lined ancient barrier between Central Europe and China, it is longer than Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall put together. This defensive wall dates to the Sassanian period, and is believed to have been manned by Sassanian troops up to at least the first half of the 7th century AD. Together with canals and associated settlement in the steppe north of the Gorgan Wall of an earlier period (c. 8th-5th centuries BC), they shed unique light on human interaction with the environment, the world’s largest inland Sea and the steppes of Eurasia. This includes but is not limited to Afghanistan , Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan , Mongolia , Tajikistan , Tibet , Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan , Xinjiang and Central Asian portions of Iran , Pakistan and Russia , region-specific topics, and anything else related to Central Asia. Being at the mid-point between the Roman and Chinese barriers, the evolution of large-scale linear defensive systems cannot be understood without taking the Great Wall of Gorgan into account. This decisive period of history saw the demise of the Western Roman Empire and the eventual emergence of the Caliphate, expanding at the expense of the Sassanid and Eastern Roman Empires. 123 689 membres. The system is remarkable not only in terms of its physical scale, but even more so in terms of its technical sophistication. It is over a thousand years earlier than the stone and brick-built Great Wall of China (i,ii,iii,iv,vi); its contemporary and earlier Chinese counterparts were essentially earthworks, even if, of course, of impressive sophistication too, in terms, for example, of boosting an advanced signalling system. The structure is yet another testament to Sassanian engineering capabilities. Le contenu de chaque Liste indicative relève de la responsabilité exclusive de l'État partie concerné. The Sassanid military barriers and fortifications in the Gorgan Plain provide evidence how effective defence, or the lack of it, could contribute to security and prosperity of empires, to their fall or survival. 37°04′13″N 54°04′36″E  /  37.070382°N 54.076552°E  / . The Great Wall of Gorgan is one of the most elaborate defensive barriers ever erected and arguably the most sophisticated of its time (i.e. The Gorgan Wall is also longer than any of the Roman linear walls, e.g. It rivals or surpasses its grandest Roman counterparts in dimensions and complexity. In one of them, rectangular enclosures in neat double rows have been found, the remnants of a tent city, probably of a mobile field army. The Gorgan Wall and its associated ancient military monuments provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a monument of outstanding universal value. One of these, the Sadd-e Garkaz, survives to c. 700 m length and 20 m height, but was originally almost one kilometre long. Less known is the Wall of Gorgan in northeastern Iran (specifically the plain of Gorgan) attributed to the Sassanian era (224-651 AD). There are, of course, a large number of ancient linear barriers across the world, but very few of them are lined by forts and few reach or exceed a length of 100 km. The Gorgan Wall and its associated ancient military monuments provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire. While preservation varies from place to place and tends to be better in the east than in the west, the Wall is still recognisable as a distinct landscape feature for most of its course. UNESCO Centre du patrimoine mondial. The combined area of the forts on the Gorgan Wall exceeds that of those on Hadrian’s Wall about threefold. While it is shorter than the "Limes" in Germany, two thirds of which are protected by a rampart rather than a wall, the Gorgan Wall forms a more formidable obstacle. La publication des Listes indicatives ne saurait être interprétée comme exprimant une prise de position de la part du Comité du patrimoine mondial, du Centre du patrimoine mondial ou du Secrétariat de l'UNESCO concernant le statut juridique d'un pays, d'un territoire, d'une ville, d'une zone ou de leurs frontières. In terms of scale and sophistication, the Great Wall of Gorgan is unmatched anywhere in western Asia, Eastern Europe, Africa or America. This wall is known as ‘The Great Wall of Gorgan’ or ‘the Red Snake’. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a Sasanian-era defense system located near modern Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. There was no stone or timber in the steppe; it is just made of bricks. Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall. It rivals or surpasses its grandest Roman counterparts in dimensions and complexity. They help to explain its geographic extent, from Mesopotamia to the west of the Indian Subcontinent, and how effective border defence contributed to the Empire’s prosperity in the interior and to its longevity. These monuments are, in terms of their scale, historical importance and sophistication, of global significance. The brick wall is lined by 38 forts, a canal, fed by a complex system of supplier canals, as well as a large number of brick kilns, in part preserved to the present day, not to mention fortresses and a large city in its hinterland. While it is shorter than the "Limes" in Germany, two thirds of which are protected by a rampart rather than a wall, the Gorgan Wall forms a more formidable obstacle. The Great Wall of Gorgon is an incredible and sophisticated defensive construction located in north-eastern Iran; it has around 30 military forts, an aqueduct, and water channels that go along the route. The wall was involved in a series of wars first against the Hephthalites or White Huns and later against the Turks. The wall is believed to have protected the Sassanian Empire against military threats in … The ancient defensive barriers in the Gorgan Plain testify to a period which saw an important stage in the history of region regarding knowledge and technology transfer which associated to the safety of the region along trade routes, as well as remarkable developments, in terms of regional-planning, landscape design and technology. Publications World Heritage Review Series Resource Manuals World Heritage wall map More publications ... Funding World Heritage Fund International Assistance. Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party. They help to explain its geographic extent, from Mesopotamia to the west of the Indian Subcontinent, and how effective border defence contributed to the Empire’s prosperity in the interior and to its longevity. The canals, of course, as well as pits within the forts are still largely preserved, though canal banks have also has some damages. Home; Places; Credits; Participate; Blog; Documentation; Downloads; Search . The Great Wall of Gorgan is a series of ancient defensive fortifications located near Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. This wall together with its monumental ensembles and other architecturally associated spaces has presented a significant combination with defensive importance. One of the integral forts spaced along the wall. The ancient defensive barriers in the Gorgan Plain testify to a period which saw an important stage in the history of region regarding knowledge and technology transfer which associated to the safety of the region along trade routes, as well as remarkable developments, in terms of regional-planning, landscape design and technology. There was no stone or timber in the steppe, and in order to build a massive defensive barrier, resistant to winter rain, an estimated 200 million fired bricks, each weighing c. 20 kg, had to be produced. Discover (and save!) It may even join up with the Tammisheh Wall, a shorter defensive barrier of strikingly similar design. May 24, 2016 - This Pin was discovered by Sa Sa 2. The Great Wall of Gorgan, Golestan Province, in northern Iran was built from 420s AD to 530s AD; it is then occupied until the 7th century. Criterion (ii):  The Great Wall of Gorgan, and the associated extensive military infrastructure in its hinterland, is of a larger scale than any known purpose-built military monument of earlier times in the Near East. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a monument of outstanding universal value. While of lesser physical length than some of the ancient Chinese barriers, in terms of the scale of its forts and hinterland fortifications, it also rivals similar monuments in ancient China. It is also more than three times the length of the longest late Roman defensive wall. It is also more than three times the length of the longest late Roman defensive wall built from scratch, the Anastasian Wall west of Constantinople. The Great Wall of Gorgan is one of the most elaborate defensive barriers ever erected and arguably the most sophisticated of its time (i.e. The Great Wall of Gorgan, also called the “The Red Snake” or “Alexander’s Barrier” is the second-longest defensive wall (after the Great Wall of China), which ran for 121 miles from a narrowing between the Caspian Sea north of Gonbade Kavous (ancient Gorgan, or Jorjan in Arabic) and the Pishkamar mountains of north-eastern Iran. These monuments are, in terms of their scale, historical importance and sophistication, of global significance. Whether or not they were parts of a single barrier, the Gorgan and Tammisheh Walls and their associated forts certainly formed part of the same defensive system. The Great Wall of China, by contrast, varies hugely in terms of size, quality and material from place to place. They help to explain its geographic extent, from Mesopotamia to the west of the Indian Subcontinent, and how effective border defence contributed to the Empire’s prosperity in the interior and to its longevity. The Gorgan Plain with its defensive monuments of the Sassanid era(5th-7th centuries) constitute the greatest cluster of military monuments known from anywhere within the Sassanid Empire, contemporary to a large-scale urban foundation, provides a microcosm of one of the ancient world’s largest states. At 195 km long, the wall is second only to the Great Wall of China as the longest defensive wall in existence, but until recently, nobody knew who had built it. In one of them, rectangular enclosures in neat double rows have been found, the remnants of a tent city, probably of a mobile field army. Les Listes indicatives des États parties sont publiées par le Centre du patrimoine mondial sur son site Internet et/ou dans les documents de travail afin de garantir la transparence et un accès aux informations et de faciliter l'harmonisation des Listes indicatives au niveau régional et sur le plan thématique. In terms of scale and sophistication, the Great Wall of Gorgan is unmatched anywhere in western Asia, Eastern Europe, Africa or America. The Tammisheh Wall, and probably the Great Wall of Gorgan, extended into territory now submerged in the Caspian Sea, due to a rise of its water-level, they shed unique light on human interaction with the environment, the world’s largest inland Sea and the steppes of Eurasia. 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Il s'agit de l'une des nombreuses portes de la Caspienne situées à l'est d'une région connue pendant l'Antiquité sous le nom d'Hyrcania, sur la route reliant les steppes du nord au centre iranien. These figures do not take into account that a substantial section in the west appears to be buried under marine sediments of the Caspian Sea. It is also more than three times the length of the longest late Roman defensive wall. Like the frontiers of the Roman Empire and the Great Wall of China it deserves World Heritage status. Further evidence for a high level of organization of the Sassanian armed forces is provided by hinterland campaign bases, each of ca. The Sassanid military barriers and fortifications in the Gorgan Plain provide evidence how effective defence, or the lack of it, could contribute to security and prosperity of empires. The publication of the Tentative Lists does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever of the World Heritage Committee or of the World Heritage Centre or of the Secretariat of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its boundaries. The Great Wall of Gorgan is the longest fort-lined ancient barrier between Central Europe and China, it is longer than Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall put together. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a series of ancient defensive fortifications located near Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. The Great Wall of Gorgan and the Wall of Tammishe ». The Tammisheh Wall, and probably the Great Wall of Gorgan, extended into territory now submerged in the Caspian Sea, due to a rise of its water-level, they shed unique light on human interaction with the environment, the world’s largest inland Sea and the steppes of Eurasia. In the early 7th century the Empire even controlled Yemen and, briefly, the eastern Levant. In order to enable construction works, canals had to be dug along the course of the defensive barrier, to provide the water needed for brick production. Criterion (iv): The Great Wall of Gorgan and contemporary defensive monuments in the Gorgan Plain are of great interest also in shedding light on the particular period of history when they were built and occupied (5th-7th centuries AD). Contact; Help; Personal tools. The route of the Gorgan Wall and the associated canal had to follow a natural gradient, evidence for remarkable skills in hydraulic engineering by its creators. This was the time when the Persian Empire, under the Sassanian dynasty, was involved in a series of wars at its northern frontier, first against the Hephthalites or White Huns and later against the Turks. The Gorgan Plain with its defensive monuments of the Sassanid era(5th-7th centuries) constitute the greatest cluster of military monuments known from anywhere within the Sassanid Empire, contemporary to a large-scale urban foundation, provides a microcosm of one of the ancient world’s largest states. Appel gratuit 0800 94 80 12 Me connecter The sole responsibility for the content of each Tentative List lies with the State Party concerned. It is also more than three times the length of the longest late Roman defensive wall built from scratch, the Anastasian Wall west of Constantinople. This required a supplier canal system of extraordinary scale and sophistication (see introduction), not to mention one brick kiln every 37-86 m, maybe 3,000-7,000 in total. Further evidence for a high level of organization of the Sassanian armed forces is provided by hinterland campaign bases, each of ca. The Great Wall of Gorgon is an incredible and sophisticated defensive construction located in north-eastern Iran; it has around 30 military forts, an aqueduct, and water channels that go along the route. They help to explain its geographic extent, from Mesopotamia to the west of the Indian Subcontinent, and how effective border defence contributed to the Empire’s prosperity in the interior and to its longevity. Undoubtedly, the Great Wall of Gorgan is not just one of the largest monuments of its kind anywhere in the world, but also one that could only be built by architects and surveyors which were exceptionally skilled and creative. Thus, due to its interaction with upper mentioned civilizations and cultures and its strategic location, carries important contents from the past. From the 5th century CE, and possibly centuries earlier, the Great Wall of Gorgan continually served as a military wall and fortification system until sometime after the Arab Muslim conquest of central Asia in the mid-7th century CE. It is said to be the longest architectural work of ancient Iran, which was built in 90 years. This decisive period of history saw the demise of the Western Roman Empire and the eventual emergence of the Caliphate, expanding at the expense of the Sassanid and Eastern Roman Empires. These canals received their water from supplier canals, which bridged the Gorgan River via qanats. This decisive period of history saw the demise of the Western Roman Empire and the eventual emergence of the Caliphate, expanding at the expense of the Sassanid and Eastern Roman Empires. Being at the mid-point between the Roman and Chinese barriers, the evolution of large-scale linear defensive systems cannot be understood without taking the Great Wall of Gorgan into account. The Great Wall of Gorgan: The History of the Ancient Near East’s Longest Defensive Wall: Charles River Editors, Colin Fluxman, Charles River Editors: Amazon.fr: Livres This is all the more remarkable as this Empire stretched from modern south-east Turkey to Pakistan and from modern Dagestan (Russia) into the Arabian Peninsula. Excavations in Fort 4 have demonstrated that the original mud-brick walls of these, probably two-storey-high, buildings survive to a height of more than three metres. It is commonly known as “the Red Snake” because of the construction materials used, red colored bricks. Criterion (v): The Tammisheh Wall, and probably the Great Wall of Gorgan, extended into territory now submerged in the Caspian Sea, due to a rise of its water-level. More Contacts Site Map Become a member Donate Now! The Gorgan Wall and its associated ancient military monuments provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire. Advanced Search… Photos Loading.... 0 other related photos... Use this tag in Flickr to mark depictions of this place's site(s): pleiades:depicts=963101073. The combined area of the forts on the Gorgan Wall exceeds that of those on Hadrian’s Wall about threefold. It is also known as the Great Wall of Gorgan, the Gorgan Defence Wall, Anushirvân Barrier, Firuz Barrier and Qazal Al’an, and sometimes Sadd-i-Iskandar, (Persian for dam or barrier of Alexander) and in the past this construction was 195 km (121 mi) long and 6-10 m (13-33 ft) wide. This wall together with its monumental ensembles and other architecturally associated spaces has presented a significant combination with defensive importance. An international team of archaeologists has been at work on the snakelike monument and here they report on their findings. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a Sasanian-era defense system located near modern Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea.

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