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geography of canada

[62] The northernmost point of the Canadian mainland is Zenith Point on Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut 72°00′07″N 94°39′18″W / 72.002°N 94.655°W / 72.002; -94.655 (Zenith Point, Nunavut). In Canada, human geographers might study the status of Indigenous languages or differences between rural and urban Canadians, among many other topics. Covering most of the northern part of the North American continent and with an area larger than that of the United States, Canada has an extremely varied topography. Fossil fuels are a more recently developed resource in Canada, with oil and gas being extracted from deposits in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin since the mid 1900s. The Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon are also drained by the St. Lawrence. Canada is bordered by non-contiguous US state of Alaska in the northwest and by 12 other US states in the south. Mount Columbia, the highest point in Alberta, stands at 3,747m (12,294 ft) high. Canada occupies the top half of the North American continent, where it borders the United States — Canada’s only neighboring nation — to its south (and north-east, via the isolated state of Alaska ). The Wrangell Volcanic Field formed as a result of subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate at the easternmost end of the Aleutian Trench. Five per cent of Canada's land area is arable, none of which is for permanent crops. Cattle, sheep and hogs are raised on the prairies, cattle and hogs in Western Ontario, sheep and hogs in Quebec, and sheep in the Maritimes. The only temperate rain forests in Canada are found along the Pacific Coast in the Coast Mountains, on Vancouver Island, and on Haida Gwaii, and in the Cariboo Mountains on the eastern flank of the Plateau. Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably the Mount Meager massif, Mount Garibaldi, the Mount Cayley massif, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex. Total Size: 9,984,670 square km. The Milk River originates in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, then flows into Alberta, then returns into the United States, where it is drained by the Missouri River. This page features maps and worksheets for Canada's 10 provinces and 3 territories. That war ended in 1763 and England was given full control of Canada with the Treaty of Paris. Much of Canada's topography consists of gently rolling hills with rock outcrops because the Canadian Shield, an ancient region with some of the world's oldest known rocks, covers almost half of the country. Because of the long history of conflict between the English and French in Canada, a division between the two still exists in the country’s languages today. Ancient volcanoes play an important role in estimating Canada's mineral potential. In this geography of Canada lesson plan, students locate features such as rivers, lakes, cities, provinces, and more. The less depleted (but still greatly diminished) salmon population continues to drive a strong fisheries industry. Canada is the second-largest country by total area in the world after Russia, covering an area of 9,984,670 sq km (3,855,100 sq miles). There are significant dairy regions in central Nova Scotia, southern New Brunswick, the St. Lawrence Valley, northeastern Ontario, southwestern Ontario, the Red River valley of Manitoba and the valleys in the British Columbia Interior, on Vancouver Island and in the Lower Mainland. In addition, agriculture and ranching play a significant role in the Prairie Provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) and several parts of the rest of the country. The Chilcotin Group is believed to have formed as a result of back-arc extension behind the Cascadia subduction zone. There are also some French-speaking communities in other portions of Canada, mostly on the east coast, but the majority of the rest of the country speaks English. Canada is bounded by the Arctic Ocean to the north, Greenland (a self-governing part of the Danish kingdom) to the northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, 12 states of the United States to the south, and the Pacific Ocean and the U.S. state of Alaska to the west; in addition, tiny Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (an archipelagic territory of France) lies off Newfoundland. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The largest, and best known, is Sudbury, Ontario. In 1713, a conflict developed between the English and French and the English won control of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Hudson Bay. Identifying and exploring Canada's six regions - Atlantic Canada, Quebec, Ontario, Western Canada, British Columbia, and the Territorial North - author Robert Bone guides students through the basic physical, historical, cultural, social, and economic features of each region, nurturing an appreciation of this country's amazing diversity. Canada’s resources include nickel (mainly from Ontario), zinc, potash, uranium, sulfur, asbestos, aluminum, and copper. [7] Three of Canada's Arctic islands, Baffin Island, Victoria Island and Ellesmere Island, are among the ten largest in the world. Three per cent of Canada's land area is covered by permanent pastures. Canada has produced a Biodiversity Action Plan in response to the 1992 international accord; the plan addresses conservation of endangered species and certain habitats. This basin is most important in fighting drought in the prairies and producing hydroelectricity, especially in Manitoba, northern Ontario and Quebec. Canada's geographic proximity to the United States has historically bound the two countries together in the political world as well. A small area of southwestern Saskatchewan is drained by Battle Creek, which empties into the Milk River.[55]. [62], The lowest point is sea level at 0 m,[64] whilst the highest point is Mount Logan, Yukon, at 5,959 m / 19,550 ft 60°34′01″N 140°24′18″W / 60.567°N 140.405°W / 60.567; -140.405 (Mount Logan, Yukon). [40] Canada also encompasses vast maritime terrain, with the world's longest coastline of 243,042 kilometres (151,019 mi). The volcanic eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada's worst natural disasters, killing an estimated 2,000 Nisga'a people and destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia. Major elements are the Yukon, Columbia and Fraser rivers. Extensively developed in British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and Labrador, the many dams have long provided a clean, dependable source of energy. The furthest straight-line distance that can be travelled to Canadian points of land is between the southwest tip of Kluane National Park and Reserve (next to Mount Saint Elias) and Cripple Cove, Newfoundland (near Cape Race) at a distance of 3,005.60 nautical miles (5,566.37 km; 3,458.78 mi). In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier discovered the St. Lawrence River while searching for fur and shortly thereafter, he claimed Canada for France. Major elements of this watershed include Lake Winnipeg, Nelson River, the North Saskatchewan and South Saskatchewan Rivers, Assiniboine River, and Nettilling Lake on Baffin Island. Download Geography of Canada App 1.0.0 for iPad & iPhone free online at AppPure. … In Canada’s far north lies the frozen Arctic. Much of Canada's topography consists of gently rolling hills with rock outcrops because the Canadian Shield, an ancient region with some of the world's oldest known rocks, covers almost half of the country. For historical political boundaries of Canada, see, History of the petroleum industry in Canada, List of highest points of Canadian provinces and territories, "Scientists shocked by Arctic permafrost thawing 70 years sooner than predicted", "Canada Facts: 25 Interesting and Fun Facts – not only for Kids", "The Atlas of Canada – Physical Components of Watersheds", "The High Subarctic Forest-Tundra of Northwestern Canada: Position, Width, and Vegetation Gradients in Relation to Climate", "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated", "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification", "Weather Data: Canada, Saskatchewan, Midale, 1937, July", "Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 Station Data", "Ottawa Macdonald Cartier International Airport", "Quebec/Jean Lesage International Airport", "Saskatoon Diefenbaker International Airport", "Winnipeg Richardson International Airport", "Canada's Worst Natural Disasters of All Time", "Population, urban and rural, by province and territory (Canada)", "Satellite imagery moves Hans Island boundary: report", "3-D Magnetic Imaging using Conjugate Gradients: Temagami anomaly", "The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada", "Canada warming up twice as fast as rest of the world, and it's 'irreversible': report", The Barren Lands Collection and Expedition maps, University of Toronto, The Barren Lands Collection, University of Toronto, World Wars and Interwar Years (1914–1945),, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 08:02. [16] Extreme northern Canada can have snow for most of the year with a Polar climate. Western Canada has many volcanoes and is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a system of volcanoes found around the margins of the Pacific Ocean. It joined Canada in 1870 followed by British Columbia in 1871 and Prince Edward Island in 1873. The majority of Canada's southern border runs straight along the 49th parallel (49 degrees north latitude), while the border along and east of the Great Lakes is jagged. [3] Of Canada's thirteen provinces and territories, only two are landlocked (Alberta and Saskatchewan) while the other eleven all directly border one of three oceans. In the east, the mountainous maritime provinces have an irregular coastline on the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Atlantic. Despite this, some areas such as the Cypress Hills and the Alberta Badlands are quite hilly and the prairie provinces contain large areas of forest such as the Mid-Continental Canadian forests. It covers Manitoba, northern Ontario and Quebec, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southwestern Nunavut and the southern half of Baffin Island. Learn about Canada and it's provinces, territories, and capitals with this educational kids video and catchy song. The country then grew again in 1901 when Alberta and Saskatchewan joined Canada. The Arctic Lowlands and Hudson Bay lowlands comprise a substantial part of the geographic region often designated as the Canadian Shield (in contrast to the sole geologic area). +1 (514) 937-9445 or Toll-free (Canada & US) +1 (888) 947-9445 | Home About Forum News Client Portal Contact The Canadian Rockies are part of a major continental divide that extends north and south through western North America and western South America. [43] Parts of the Appalachians are home to a rich endemic flora and fauna and are considered to have been nunataks during the last glaciation era. Geography. What is the mountain range called between British Columbia and Alberta? Hydroelectric power and pulp and paper industries are also important. This leaves the vast majority of Canada's territory as sparsely populated wilderness; Canada's population density is 3.5 people/km2 (9.1/mi2), among the lowest in the world. The Danish island dependency of Greenland lies to Canada's northeast, separated from the Canadian Arctic islands by Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. The Canadian Shield is known for its vast minerals, such as emeralds, diamonds and copper. Fruit and vegetables are grown primarily in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia, Southwestern Ontario, the Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario, along the south coast of Georgian Bay and in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. North, near the Alaskan border, Haida Gwaii lies across Hecate Strait from the North Coast region and to its north, across Dixon Entrance from Southeast Alaska. [44] Prior to its colonization and heavy urban sprawl of the 20th century, this Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests area was home to large mixed forests covering a mostly flat area of land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Canadian Shield. The southern portions of the Shield are covered with boreal forests while the northern parts are tundra because it is too far north for trees. The great plains consist of a large, flat, and treeless area of land. The French islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon lie off the southern coast of Newfoundland in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and have a maritime territorial enclave within Canada's exclusive economic zone.[57]. GEOGRAPHY Canada is a vast and rugged land. It has three branches of government. The St. Lawrence plain, covering most of southern Quebec and Ontario, and the interior continental plain, covering southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan and most of Alberta, are the principal cultivable areas. Get Geography of Canada for iOS latest version. The boreal forests account for four-fifths of Canada's forestland. [62], The westernmost point is Boundary Peak 187 (60°18′22.929″N 141°00′7.128″W) at the southern end of the Yukon–Alaska border, which roughly follows 141°W but leans very slightly east as it goes North 60°18′04″N 141°00′36″W / 60.301°N 141.010°W / 60.301; -141.010 (Boundary Peak 187). Canada claims 22 km (12 nmi) of territorial sea, a contiguous zone of 44 km (24 nmi), an exclusive economic zone of 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi) with 370 km (200 nmi) and a continental shelf of 370 km (200 nmi) or to the edge of the continental margin. Get Free Access See Review. [54], The Atlantic watershed drains the entirety of the Atlantic provinces (parts of the Quebec-Labrador border are fixed at the Atlantic Ocean-Arctic Ocean continental divide), most of inhabited Quebec and large parts of southern Ontario. The Seven Year’s War, in which England sought to gain more control of the country, then began in 1756. [62], The southernmost point is Middle Island, in Lake Erie, Ontario (41°41′N 82°40′W); the southernmost water point lies just south of the island, on the Ontario–Ohio border (41°40′35″N). The southernmost point of the Canadian mainland is Point Pelee, Ontario 41°54′32″N 82°30′32″W / 41.909°N 82.509°W / 41.909; -82.509 (Point Pelee, Ontario). The size is roughly ~1,900,000 km2 (733,594.1 sq mi). [58] The Shield is also covered by vast boreal forests that support an important logging industry. Geography of Canada. The physical geography of Canada is widely varied. The Mackenzie is over 4,200 km (2,600 mi) in length while the St. Lawrence is over 3,000 km (1,900 mi) in length. Canada has more lakes than the rest of the world combined. Borders: United States (longest shared border in the world of 5,526 miles), maritime borders with Greenland and Saint Pierre and Miquelon, water borders include the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean. [17] Landlocked areas tend to have a warm summer continental climate zone[18] with the exception of Southwestern Ontario which has a hot summer humid continental climate. The Anahim Volcanic Belt was formed as a result of the North American Plate sliding westward over the Anahim hotspot. It's the second largest country in the world, and it has the largest bay that freezes over—oh, Canada! The French began to settle there in 1541 but an official settlement was not established until 1604. [10] Canada has over 2,000,000 lakes—563 greater than 100 km2 (39 sq mi)—which is more than any other country, containing much of the world's fresh water. This area is also dotted with hundreds of lakes because of depressions in the land caused by the last glaciation. Today these stocks are nearly depleted, and their conservation has become a preoccupation of the Atlantic Provinces. [18] Parts of Western Canada have a semi-arid climate, and parts of Vancouver Island can even be classified as a warm-summer Mediterranean climate. British Columbia has a long history that still shows throughout much of … In 1849, Canada was given the right to self-government and the country of Canada was officially established in 1867. Canada's abundance of natural resources is reflected in their continued importance in the economy of Canada. Canada is located in the Northern and Western Hemispheres of the globe 4. Within the field of human geography there are five main areas of study. It remained this size until 1949 when Newfoundland became the 10th province. The first Europeans to reach the country were likely the Vikings and it is believed that Norse explorer Leif Eriksson led them to the coast of Labrador or Nova Scotia in 1000 CE. Canada's many rivers have afforded extensive development of hydroelectric power. [14] Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada range from Arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. That settlement, called Port Royal, was located in what is now Nova Scotia. Since geography is the study of the world, it’s really important for us to make sure we include it as part of our learning with our kids [49], The Shield cannot support intensive agriculture, although there is subsistence agriculture and small dairy farms in many of the river valleys and around the abundant lakes, particularly in the southern regions. In this part of Canada begins one of the world's largest estuaries, the Estuary of Saint Lawrence (see Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests). The Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province was formed by faulting, cracking, rifting, and the interaction between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The Peace River Valley in northeastern British Columbia is Canada's most northerly agricultural region, although it is part of the Prairies. The Columbia and the Fraser Rivers have their headwaters in the Canadian Rockies and are the second and third largest rivers respectively to drain to the west coast of North America. There are over 200 young volcanic centres that stretch northward from the Cascade Range to Yukon. Choose from 500 different sets of canada geography flashcards on Quizlet. The climate varies from temperate on the west coast of British Columbia[15] to a subarctic climate in the north. Alberta also produces 75% of Canada’s oil and is important for coal and natural gas. Canada For Students 8th - Higher Ed Standards. European settlement did not begin in Canada until the 1500s. 13 U.S. states share a border with Canada: The Origins of British Columbia in Canada, Origins of the Saskatchewan Province of Canada, Canada's Population Estimates, Third Quarter 2018, M.A., Geography, California State University - East Bay, B.A., English and Geography, California State University - Sacramento. [55], The southernmost part of Alberta drains into the Gulf of Mexico through the Milk River and its tributaries. It is mostly drained by the economically important St. Lawrence River and its tributaries, notably the Saguenay, Manicouagan and Ottawa rivers. [45] Most of this forest has been cut down through agriculture and logging operations, but the remaining forests are for the most part heavily protected. The provinces with the largest forestry industries are British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. Cities with over 1 million residents. British Columbia is the province located the farthest west in Canada and is bounded by the Alaska Panhandle, the Yukon and Northwest Territories, Alberta and the U.S. states of Montana, Idaho and Washington. It is the second largest country (by area) in the world. The Appalachian mountains (more specifically the Chic-Choc Mountains, Notre Dame, and Long Range Mountains) are an old and eroded range of mountains, approximately 380 million years in age. United States & Canada Physical Geography The great plains are located to the west of the Interior Plains. This app is about an interactive map about Canadian geography. The first is the executive, which consists of the head of state, who is represented by a governor general, and the prime minister, who is considered the head of government. Many of the volcanic belts bear ore deposits that are related to the volcanism. [41] The physical geography of Canada is widely varied. Canada has a diverse climate. The Appalachian mountain range extends from Alabama through the Gaspé Peninsula and the Atlantic Provinces, creating rolling hills indented by river valleys. Canada is a large country. [50] The eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and, according to Nisga'a legend, blocked the flow of the Nass River.[51]. Those straits include a large number of islands, notably the Gulf Islands and Discovery Islands. Canada is part of North America. Boreal forests cover much of the country, with ice taking over the northerly Arctic regions and through the Rocky Mountains, and the flat Canadian Prairies of agriculture occupying the southwest. Winters, however, are normally long and harsh in most of the country. In addition to the French, the English also began exploring Canada for its fur and fish trade and in 1670 established the Hudson's Bay Company. The Canadian shield is also called the mineral house. The ground in the Arctic is mostly composed of permafrost, making construction difficult and often hazardous, and agriculture virtually impossible. Canada's mineral resources are diverse and extensive. These areas are economic geography, cultural geography, political geography, urban geography and environmental geography. [42] It also runs through parts of southern Quebec.[42]. There are six cities in Canada that have a population of over 1 … Geography of Canada Chapter Exam Instructions. To the west of the Canadian Shield are the central plains, or prairies. Cattle and sheep are raised in the valleys and plateaus of British Columbia. Canada is the second largest country in the world by land area. The border of Canada with the US is the longest bi-national land border in the world. Other than in the plateau regions of the Interior and its many river valleys, most of British Columbia is coniferous forest. Canada has a vast geography that occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south and the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest. The nearby, but less known Temagami Magnetic Anomaly has striking similarities to the Sudbury Basin. George Hunter. Canada holds vast reserves of water: its rivers discharge nearly 7% of the world's renewable water supply,[52] it contains a quarter of the world's wetlands, and it has the third largest amount of glaciers (after Antarctica and Greenland). [59] Metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impact agricultural and forest productivity. Rounding out the ten longest rivers within Canada are the Nelson, Churchill, Peace, Fraser, North Saskatchewan, Ottawa, Athabasca and Yukon rivers. Fifty-four percent of Canada's land area is covered in forest. The region is known for its extensive mineral reserves.[49]. What is Canada's longest river? With an estimated three million lakes in Canada, there is more surface area of water in Canada than any other country. The Arctic, when defined as everything north of the tree line, covers most of Nunavut and the northernmost parts of Northwest Territories, Yukon, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Labrador. The bulk of oil and gas production occurs in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (mostly light green), which stretches from southwestern Manitoba to northeastern British Columbia. Some symbols of Canada are the beaver and the maple leaf. Canada has 7,200 square kilometres (2,800 mi2) of irrigated land (1993 estimate). The pillow lavas in rocks over 2 billion years old in the Canadian Shield signify that great oceanic volcanoes existed during the early stages of the formation of the Earth's crust. [40] The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River (in the southeast) where lowlands host much of Canada's population. It is a part of the Pacific Northwest and is Canada's third most populated province behind Ontario and Quebec. [61], The northernmost point of land within the boundaries of Canada is Cape Columbia, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut 83°06′40″N 69°58′19″W / 83.111°N 69.972°W / 83.111; -69.972 (Cape Columbia, Nunavut). Lesson Planet. Boreal forest covers much of the shield, with a mix of conifers that provide valuable timber resources in areas such as the Central Canadian Shield forests ecoregion that covers much of Northern Ontario. Some particular regions of the Shield are referred to as mountain ranges, including the Torngat and Laurentian Mountains. By land area alone, however, Canada ranks fourth, the difference being due to it having the world's largest proportion of fresh water lakes. The Western Cordillera continues northwards past the Liard River in northernmost British Columbia to include the Mackenzie and Selwyn Ranges which lie in the far western Northwest Territories and the eastern Yukon Territory. Unmatched cod stocks on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland launched this industry in the 16th century. Nearly 90% of Canadians live within 99 miles of the U.S. border (because of harsh weather and the expense of building on permafrost in the north). It is the largest lake in the world that naturally drains in two directions. At the federal level, however, the country is officially bilingual.

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