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what caused the panic of 1873

The Great Financial Panic of 1873 - Closing the door of the Stock Exchange on its members, Saturday, Sept. 20th. The leading cause of the Panic of 1873 was rampant speculation and corruption inherent in America’s explosive railroad construction. Recovery from the crash occurred much more quickly in Europe than in the United States. Panic of 1873 Fact 2: The effects of the European depression, and the resultant failure of foreign investment in the US, led to the ruin of the banking firm called Jay Cook and Company. Disclosure: Positive Negative Impact is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Thus, minor issues could create considerable economic turmoil for the United States. Grant, Ulysses S.(1822-1885): America's eighteenth president (1869-1877), Grant received public blame for the panic of 1… Table 2 Total Bank Suspensions as a Percent of Total Number of Banks in Each of the Banking Crises, 1873- 1931 The general demonetisation and cheapening of silver caused the Latin Monetary Union in 1873 to suspend the conversion of silver to coins. Euphoria over the military victory against France in 1871 and the influx of capital from the payment by France of war reparations fueled stock market speculation in railways, factories, docks, steamships, the same industrial branches that expanded unsustainably in the United States. Poor economic conditions also caused voters to turn against the Republican Party; in the 1874 congressional elections, the Democratic Party assumed control of the House for the first time since the Civil War. For the United States, though, it meant lines in the sand for the Democrats, the party of white farmers and laborers, and the Republicans, the party of blacks and the wealthy. The Panic of 1873 touched off what at the time had been the most devastating financial collapse the United States had ever witnessed. This crisis prevailed in the years between 1873 until 1877. One response to the series of failures and bankruptcies was an upsurge in business consolidations. The Act had the immediate effect of depressing silver prices, hurting Western mining interests, who labeled the Act "The Crime of '73", but its effect was offset somewhat by the introduction of a silver trade dollar for use in Asia and the discovery of new silver deposits at Virginia City, Nevada, that resulted in new investment in mining activity. After the purchase of the Northern Pacific Railroad, however, Cooke's firm immediately ran into financial difficulties. The Northern Pacific Railroad was fueled by massive federal land grants, with over 60 million acres being signed over to Cooke’s firm, which was then used as collateral to take out loans and sell stocks. In Britain, the Panic started two decades of stagnation known as the "Long Depression" that weakened the country's economic leadership. In 1870 the Hungarian government and in 1872 the Emperor-King Franz Joseph I of Austria resolved the question of the competing projects. As a result, the US Congress passed the Coinage Act of 1873, which changed the national silver policy. The New Press, 2010. p 149. [9], Many US insurance companies went out of business, as the deteriorating financial conditions created solvency problems for life insurers. The resulting outcry raised serious questions about how long the new policy would last. The Panic’s global impact meant many people started to look for a new home and new jobs, and they turned to the nation that welcomed them, at the time at least: America. Factories began to lay off workers as the country slipped into depression. The Railroad companies were the largest non-agricultural employer, and banks and other industries were quickly putting their money into railroads. Lv 7. [41], In the periphery, the Ottoman Empire's economy also suffered. [1] Similar to the Panic of 1873, this panic was marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures. Merchant banker The economic development of the American nation, p. 356, Reginald Charles McGrane, Ginn & Co., Boston 1950. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, convert silver from the public into silver coins, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "What history teaches us about the welfare state", "Social Democracy for the 21st Century: A Post Keynesian Perspective: US Unemployment, 1869–1899", https://books.google.com/books?id=rf4q5LjLbHIC&pg=PA149, "The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Martinsburg Shops NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK NOMINATION". As the silver supply increased, people began exchanging their silver for the more stable and valuable gold. The depression of the 1890s did not fully abate until 1897. France, like Britain, also entered into a prolonged stagnation that extended to 1897. ", Keith Tankard, "The Effects of the 'great depression' of the Late 19th Century on East London 1873-1887.". "1877: America's Year for Living Violently. ; It Was Then the Era of Paper Money, So That the Great Credits Which Were Created Had no Definite Currency Basis. [27][28], Although the collapse of the foreign loan financing had been predicted, the events of that year were in themselves comparatively unimportant. The 1879 tariffs protected these interests, stimulated economic revival through state intervention and refurbished political support for the conservative politicians Otto von Bismarck in Germany and John A. Macdonald in Canada. 1 Answer. The first symptoms of the crisis were financial failures in Vienna, the capital of Austria-Hungary, which spread to most of Europe and to North America by 1873. White supremacists groups like the KKK, which earlier administrations had successfully reigned in with legislation from 1868, saw a resurgence. Rates of growth of foreign trade dropped, external terms of trade deteriorated, declining wheat prices affected peasant producers, and the establishment of European control over Ottoman finances led to large debt payments abroad. The American Civil War (1861-1865) was followed by a boom in railroad construction. [10], The failure of Jay Cooke's bank and soon afterward of Henry Clews set off a chain reaction of bank failures and temporarily closed the New York Stock Exchange. Answer Save. The Jay Cooke firm was a major financier for the Union during the Civil War, and they continued their government support through the railroad industry. This weakened the U.S. Treasury’s gold supply, … I was only aware about the Panic of 1893, which as you mentioned was probably just a continuation of the 1873 depression that never ended. What caused the panic of 1873? [7] The Act also reduced the domestic money supply, raising interest rates and hurting farmers and others who normally carried heavy debt loads. However, just as Cooke was about to swing a $300 million government loan in September 1873, reports circulated that his firm's credit had become nearly worthless. Unemployment peaked in 1878, at 8.25%. As the workers began rioting, with reports of looting and attacks on civilians and police, the governor called on US President Rutherford B. Hayes for federal assistance, and Hayes dispatched federal troops. Like many Panics that presage depressions there was not just one cause to the Panic of 1873 but rather a multitude of factors set the stage. It also turned public opinion against early unionization efforts as they turned violent in their desires for worker’s rights. The growth rates of agricultural and aggregate production were also lower during the Long Depression than the later period.[42].

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