Available: http://www.techrepublic.com/whitepapers/from-hype-to-future-kpmgs-2010-cloud-computing-survey/2384291 Available: Rosado DG, Gómez R, Mellado D, Fernández-Medina E: Security analysis in the migration to cloud environments. We will discuss three models of cloud-based computing: public, private, and hybrid. <> Cookies policy. Jansen W, Grance T: Guidelines on Security and privacy in public Cloud Computing. MASS’09. Security of PaaS clouds is considered from multiple perspective including access control, service continuity and privacy while protecting together the service provider and the user. 2010. Fong E, Okun V: Web application scanners: definitions and functions. Introduction Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically Some of these vulnerabilities are the following: Lack of employee screening and poor hiring practices  – some cloud providers may not perform background screening of their employees or providers. Shared responsibility in the cloud. An evaluation of this approach was not performed when this publication was published. As a result, security is sometimes inconsistent, and can be … Also, even when virtual machines are offline, they can be vulnerable ; that is, a virtual machine can be instantiated using an image that may contain malicious code. Once the sources had been defined, it was necessary to describe the process and the criteria for study selection and evaluation. Unfortunately, integrating security into these solutions is often perceived as making them more rigid . We have presented security issues for cloud models: IaaS, PaaS, and IaaS, which vary depending on the model. With a private cloud, your organization will have total control over the solution from top to bottom. Encryption techniques have been used for long time to secure sensitive data. The following list of sources has been considered: ScienceDirect, ACM digital library, IEEE digital library, Scholar Google and DBLP. Owens D: Securing elasticity in the Cloud. SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS: A security checklist for cloud models Key security issues can vary depending on the cloud model you're using. IBM J Res Dev 2009, 53(4):560–571. NY, USA: ACM New York; 2009:128–133. Accessed: 02-Aug-2011, Berger S, Cáceres R, Pendarakis D, Sailer R, Valdez E, Perez R, Schildhauer W, Srinivasan D: TVDc: managing Security in the trusted virtual datacenter. We have focused on this distinction, where we consider important to understand these issues. Because Cloud Computing represents a relatively new computing model, there is a great deal of uncertainty about how security at all levels (e.g., network, host, application, and data levels) can be achieved and how applications security is moved to Cloud Computing . This technique consists in first breaking down sensitive data into insignificant fragments, so any fragment does not have any significant information by itself. Malicious users can store images containing malicious code into public repositories compromising other users or even the cloud system [20, 24, 25]. Attack vect… Attackers have been using the web to compromise user’s computers and perform malicious activities such as steal sensitive data . An examination of PaaS security challenges Organizations need to consider the security implications associated with data location, privileged access and a distributed architecture in the PaaS model. Network components are shared by different tenants due to resource pooling. J Netw Comput Appl 2011, 34(1):1–11. According to the Cloud Security Alliancethe list of the main cloud security threats includes the following: However, new security techniques are needed as well as redesigned traditional solutions that can work with cloud architectures. 3 0 obj Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) is a non-profit organization that promotes the use of best practices in order to provide security in cloud environments. 2009. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM workshop on Cloud Computing Security workshop. Once again, security cannot be … In CanSecWest applied Security conference. The authors in  provided some real-world cloud applications where some basic homomorphic operations are needed. The second greatest threat to PaaS users will be SSL-based attacks. Xu K, Zhang X, Song M, Song J: Mobile Mashup: Architecture, Challenges and Suggestions. Cloud Computing appears as a computational paradigm as well as a distribution architecture and its main objective is to provide secure, quick, convenient data storage and net computing service, with all computing resources visualized as services and delivered over the Internet [2, 3]. The relationship between threats and vulnerabilities is illustrated in Table 4, which describes how a threat can take advantage of some vulnerability to compromise the system. Crossroads 2010, 16(3):23–25. For the final model, applications can be scaled up by moving the application to a more powerful server if needed. Winkler V: Securing the Cloud: Cloud computer Security techniques and tactics. Resolving such problems may increase the usage of cloud thereby reducing the amount spent for resources. 10.1145/1341312.1341321. Part of The TC manages a set of trusted nodes that run TVMMs, and it is maintained but a trusted third party. Zhang F, Huang Y, Wang H, Chen H, Zang B: PALM: Security Preserving VM Live Migration for Systems with VMM-enforced Protection. Tebaa M, El Hajji S, El Ghazi A: Homomorphic encryption method applied to Cloud Computing. Santos N, Gummadi KP, Rodrigues R: Towards Trusted Cloud Computing. Virtualized environments are vulnerable to all types of attacks for normal infrastructures; however, security is a greater challenge as virtualization adds more points of entry and more interconnection complexity . Brereton P, Kitchenham BA, Budgen D, Turner M, Khalil M: Lessons from applying the systematic literature review process within the software engineering domain. Mell P, Grance T: The NIST definition of Cloud Computing. Pittsburgh, PA: CMU-CS-01–120; 2001. International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence 2011, 3(1):38–46. One can either create her own VM image from scratch, or one can use any image stored in the provider’s repository. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2010:1–8. This paper reviewed various security issues inherent in the PaaS cloud model, classified them according to the essential cloud characteristics and finally recommended high-level solutions to the identified security issues. In National Days of Network Security and Systems (JNS2). Malware injections are scripts of malicious code that hackers inject into a cloud computing service. VMs located on the same server can share CPU, memory, I/O, and others. In Proceedings of the 4th Int. The three basic operations for cloud data are transfer, store, and process. In Proceedings of the 10th conference on Hot Topics in Operating Systems, Santa Fe, NM. The data breach has several consequences, some of which includes: Incident forensics and response leading to financial … In Services Computing conference. In some cases, this switch has required major changes in software and caused project delays and even productivity losses. In Proceedings of APSEC 2010 Cloud Workshop. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. IEEE Computer Society Washington DC, USA; 2010:344–349. Data security is a common concern for any technology, but it becomes a major challenge when SaaS users have to rely on their providers for proper security [12, 21, 36]. Bisong A, Rahman S: An overview of the Security concerns in Enterprise Cloud Computing. There are some surveys where they focus on one service model, or they focus on listing cloud security issues in general without distinguishing among vulnerabilities and threats. PaaS application security comprises two software layers: Security of the PaaS platform itself (i.e., runtime engine), and Security of customer applications deployed on a PaaS platform . Security of PaaS clouds is considered from multiple perspectives including access control, privacy and service continuity while protecting both the service provider and the user. ��b������$�I��9�vP$�. Popovic K, Hocenski Z: Cloud Computing Security issues and challenges. Waltham, MA: Elsevier Inc; 2011. This report includes centralized directory, access management, identity management, role-based access control, user access certifications, privileged user and access management, separation of duties, and identity and access reporting. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2011:1–10. In order to overcome this threat, an image management system was proposed, Mirage . Additionally, security controls and self-service entitlements offered by the PaaS platform could pose a problem if not properly configured. CA, USA: USENIX Association Berkeley; 2005:227–229. The security of this data while it is being processed, transferred, and stored depends on the provider. Carlin S, Curran K: Cloud Computing Security. Grobauer B, Walloschek T, Stocker E: Understanding Cloud Computing vulnerabilities. The studies analyze the risks and threats, often give recommendations on how they can be avoided or covered, resulting in a direct relationship between vulnerability or threats and possible solutions and mechanisms to solve them. As described in this paper, storage, virtualization, and networks are the biggest security concerns in Cloud Computing. Han-zhang W, Liu-sheng H: An improved trusted cloud computing platform model based on DAA and privacy CA scheme. We have expressed three of the items in Table 4 as misuse patterns . Technical report, Helsinki University of Technology, October 2007. Finally, we provide some conclusions. Accessed: 15-Jul-2011. Available: . Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, USA, Department of Information Systems and Technologies GSyA Research Group, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain, David G Rosado & Eduardo Fernández-Medina, You can also search for this author in Computer 2009, 42(8):106–108. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM conference on Computer and communications security, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Also, running these filters may raise privacy concerns because they have access to the content of the images which can contain customer’s confidential data. There are some well-known encryption schemes such as AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). Thus, these images are fundamental for the the overall security of the cloud [46, 49]. Reuben JS: A survey on virtual machine Security. Cloud Security Alliance: Security guidance for critical areas of Mobile Computing. That uncertainty has consistently led information executives to state that security is their number one concern with Cloud Computing . Gaithersburg, MD: NIST, Special Publication 800–145; 2011. Nevertheless, there are still a few security issues in cloud computing that are worth being aware of. Wang C, Wang Q, Ren K, Lou W: Ensuring data Storage Security in Cloud Computing. The most secure way is to hook each VM with its host by using dedicated physical channels. The Cloud Security Alliance  has released a document that describes the current state of mobile computing and the top threats in this area such as information stealing mobile malware, insecure networks (WiFi), vulnerabilities found in the device OS and official applications, insecure marketplaces, and proximity-based hacking. We put more emphasis on threats that are associated with data being stored and processed remotely, sharing resources and the usage of virtualization. Edited by: Rosado DG, Mellado D, Fernandez-Medina E, Piattini M. Pennsylvania, United States: IGI Global; 2013:36–53. IEEE Computer Society Washington, DC, USA; 2010:211–216. <>>> However, it also introduces new opportunities for attackers because of the extra layer that must be secured . IEEE Security Privacy 2011, 9(2):50–57. Traditional security mechanisms may not work well in cloud environments because it is a complex architecture that is composed of a combination of different technologies. For instance, in threat T10, an attacker can read or tamper with the contents of the VM state files during live migration. Later, we will analyze the security issues in Cloud Computing identifying the main vulnerabilities for clouds, the most important threats in clouds, and all available countermeasures for these threats and vulnerabilities. Each provider is responsible for securing his own services, which may result in an inconsistent combination of security models. Here are some of the security issues associated to IaaS. Harnik D, Pinkas B, Shulman-Peleg A: Side channels in Cloud services: deduplication in Cloud Storage. PaaS (Platform-as-a-Service) ist eine vollständige Entwicklungs- und Bereitstellungsumgebung in der Cloud, über die Sie Zugang zu den erforderlichen Ressourcen erhalten, um verschiedenste Lösungen bereitstellen zu können – von einfachen cloudbasierten Apps bis hin zu ausgereiften cloudfähigen Unternehmensanwendungen. The applications are accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a web browser (e.g., web-based email). PaaS providers are responsible for securing the platform software stack that includes the runtime engine that runs the customer applications. PaaS facilitates deployment of cloud-based applications without the cost of buying and maintaining the underlying hardware and software layers . After executing the search chain on the selected sources we obtained a set of about 120 results which were filtered with the inclusion criteria to give a set of about 40 relevant studies. The current focus of the hacking community on breaking SSL will become a major exploit vector in the near future. The service provider maintains the infrastructure for developing and running the applications. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). Like Table 2 it also describes the threats that are related to the technology used in cloud environments, and it indicates what cloud service models are exposed to these threats. TVDc provides isolation between workloads by enforcing mandatory access control, hypervisor-based isolation, and protected communication channels such as VLANs. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2008:9–18. 1 0 obj Zhang Q, Cheng L, Boutaba R: Cloud Computing: state-of-the-art and research challenges. Largely because of the relatively lower degree of abstraction, IaaS offers greater tenant or customer control over security than do PaaS or SaaS . Available: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/06/08/webhost_attack/. The cloud enhances collaboration, agility, scalability, availability, ability to adapt to fluctuations according to demand, accelerate development work, and provides potential for cost reduction through optimized and efficient computing [4–7]. There are several security standard specifications  such as Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML), WS-Security, Extensible Access Control Markup (XACML), XML Digital Signature, XML Encryption, Key Management Specification (XKMS), WS-Federation, WS-Secure Conversation, WS-Security Policy and WS-Trust. This approach includes the following security features: access control framework, image filters, a provenance tracking, and repository maintenance services. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin; 2009. Future Internet 2012, 4(2):430–450. Data may be stored on different places with different legal regimes that can compromise its privacy and security. Proceedings of Black Hat Security Conference, Washington, DC 2008. http://www.eecs.umich.edu/fjgroup/pubs/blackhat08-migration.pdf. NY, USA: ACM New York; 2010:88–92. IEEE Security Privacy 2010, 8(6):40–47. In IEEE youth conference on information Computing and telecommunications (YC-ICT). However, it requires a huge processing power which may impact on user response time and power consumption. Using covert channels, two VMs can communicate bypassing all the rules defined by the security module of the VMM . The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. Therefore, the research question addressed by our research was the following: What security vulnerabilities and threats are the most important in Cloud Computing which have to be studied in depth with the purpose of handling them? In both SaaS and PaaS, data is associated with an application running in the cloud. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2009:1–9. We systematically analyze now existing security vulnerabilities and threats of Cloud Computing. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2010:378–380. By contrast, the PaaS model offers greater extensibility and greater customer control. Chandramouli R, Mell P: State of Security readiness. Virtual machine security becomes as important as physical machine security, and any flaw in either one may affect the other . Available: . Therefore, any vulnerability associated to these technologies also affects the cloud, and it can even have a significant impact. Lack of customer background checks – most cloud providers do not check their customer’s background, and almost anyone can open an account with a valid credit card and email. Virtualization allows users to create, copy, share, migrate, and roll back virtual machines, which may allow them to run a variety of applications [43, 44]. However, flaws in web applications may create vulnerabilities for the SaaS applications. Zhang S, Zhang S, Chen X, Huo X: Cloud Computing Research and Development Trend. Although there are many benefits to adopting Cloud Computing, there are also some significant barriers to adoption. The NIST Cloud Computing Standards Roadmap Working Group has gathered high level standards that are relevant for Cloud Computing. First, let's define IaaS and PaaS. KPMG: From hype to future: KPMG’s 2010 Cloud Computing survey.. 2010. Zhang Y, Juels A, Reiter MK, Ristenpart T: Cross-VM side channels and their use to extract private keys. However, we have to take into account that PaaS offers a platform to build and deploy SaaS applications, which increases the security dependency between them. Version 2.3 University of keele (software engineering group, school of computer science and mathematics) and Durham. A strong and effective authentication framework is essential to ensure that individual users can be correctly identified without the authentication system succumbing to the numerous possible attacks. HyperSafe’s goal is to protect type I hypervisors using two techniques: non-bypassable memory lockdown which protects write-protected memory pages from being modified, and restricted pointed indexing that converts control data into pointer indexes. An analysis of security issues for cloud computing. Available: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/06/08/webhost_attack/. Available: https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/research/top-threats Available: ENISA: Cloud Computing: benefits, risks and recommendations for information Security. This approach enables more efficient use of the resources but scalability is limited. Most developers still deal with application security issues in isolation, without understanding the security of the "“full stack”". With SaaS, the burden of security lies with the cloud provider. Furthermore, we describe the relationship between these vulnerabilities and threats; how these vulnerabilities can be exploited in order to perform an attack, and also present some countermeasures related to these threats which try to solve or improve the identified problems. However, it also exposes the service to additional security risks. NY, USA: ACM New York; 2009:91–96. <> SaaS users have less control over security among the three fundamental delivery models in the cloud. We have carried out a systematic review [13–15] of the existing literature regarding security in Cloud Computing, not only in order to summarize the existing vulnerabilities and threats concerning this topic but also to identify and analyze the current state and the most important security issues for Cloud Computing. There are very few limitations on what applications can be run on the infrastructure or what tools can be used to run the applications. Cloud Computing combines a number of computing concepts and technologies such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Web 2.0, virtualization and other technologies with reliance on the Internet, providing common business applications online through web browsers to satisfy the computing needs of users, while their software and data are stored on the servers . networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort of service provider interaction, defined by NIST . Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer, Society; 2010:V13–33. Attacks to lower layers have more impact to the other layers. The question focus was to identify the most relevant issues in Cloud Computing which consider vulnerabilities, threats, risks, requirements and solutions of security for Cloud Computing. SIGOPS Oper. From the perspective of the application development, developers face the complexity of building secure applications that may be hosted in the cloud. 10.1016/j.jss.2006.07.009. - Provides convenience for users in accessing different OSs (as opposed to systems with multiple boot capability). The TCCP adds two fundamental elements: a trusted virtual machine monitor (TVMM) and a trusted coordinator (TC). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the NSF. It groups virtual machines that have common objectives into workloads named Trusted Virtual Domains (TVDs). Moving critical applications and sensitive data to public cloud environments is of great concern for those corporations that are moving beyond their data center’s network under their control. Viega J: Cloud Computing and the common Man. The VMM is a low-level software that controls and monitors its virtual machines, so as any traditional software it entails security flaws . The authors declare that they have no competing interests. UK: Department of Conputer Science; 2007. By using this website, you agree to our Bezemer C-P, Zaidman A: Multi-tenant SaaS applications: maintenance dream or nightmare? Future Internet 2012, 4(2):469–487. Some confidential information such as passwords or cryptographic keys can be recorded while an image is being created. This presentation will help you architecturally understand each of the service models -- Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) -- and the security risks you can expect with each, as well as how IaaS, PaaS and SaaS security issues and risks affect not only data security but also organizational compliance efforts. Moreover,  describes that encryption can be used to stop side channel attacks on cloud storage de-duplication, but it may lead to offline dictionary attacks reveling personal keys. The RMF is your best bet for resolving security control issues on the PaaS. VM images are dormant artifacts that are hard to patch while they are offline . In IaaS environments, a VM image is a prepackaged software template containing the configurations files that are used to create VMs. Also, some current solutions were listed in order to mitigate these threats. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2009:1–4. A malicious virtual machine can be migrated to another host (with another VMM) compromising it. SaaS provides application services on demand such as email, conferencing software, and business applications such as ERP, CRM, and SCM . Available: https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_1_IAM_Implementation_Guidance.pdf Available: Xiao S, Gong W: Mobility Can help: protect user identity with dynamic credential. Accessed: 15-Jul-2011 http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1454221 Online. Developers have to keep in mind that PaaS applications should be upgraded frequently, so they have to ensure that their application development processes are flexible enough to keep up with changes . They proposed to use Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) and Privacy CA scheme to tackle this issue. Jansen WA: Cloud Hooks: Security and Privacy Issues in Cloud Computing. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach, they have conducted four types of attacks such as modify the hypervisor code, execute the injected code, modify the page table, and tamper from a return table. Traditional web applications, data hosting, and virtualization have been looked over, but some of the solutions offered are immature or inexistent. Security Issues, Data Security, Private Protection. 2009. Current homomorphic encryption schemes support limited number of homomorphic operations such as addition and multiplication. PaaS providers are responsible for securing the platform software stack that includes the runtime engine that runs the customer applications. Insecure VM migration can be mitigated by the following proposed techniques: TCCP  provides confidential execution of VMs and secure migration operations as well. J Syst Softw 2007, 80(4):571–583. Providers of Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) face a common set of challenges that must be overcome to ensure successful service delivery and encourage adoption. Dawoud W, Takouna I, Meinel C: Infrastructure as a service security: Challenges and solutions. An attacker can compromise the migration module in the VMM and transfer a victim virtual machine to a malicious server. The speed at which applications will change in the cloud will affect both the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) and security [12, 24]. For instance, most virtualization platforms such as Xen provide two ways to configure virtual networks: bridged and routed, but these techniques increase the possibility to perform some attacks such as sniffing and spoofing virtual network [45, 52].  proposes to secure data using digital signature with RSA algorithm while data is being transferred over the Internet. We present here a categorization of security issues for Cloud Computing focused in the so-called SPI model (SaaS, PaaS and IaaS), identifying the main vulnerabilities in this kind of systems and the most important threats found in the literature related to Cloud Computing and its environment. A SaaS provider may rent a development environment from a PaaS provider, which might also rent an infrastructure from an IaaS provider. Platform as a Service (PaaS). This can be possible because VM migration transfer the data over network channels that are often insecure, such as the Internet. Cloud Computing leverages many technologies (SOA, virtualization, Web 2.0); it also inherits their security issues, which we discuss here, identifying the main vulnerabilities in this kind of systems and the most important threats found in the literature related to Cloud Computing and its environment as well as to identify and relate vulnerabilities and threats with possible solutions. Since Cloud Computing leverages many technologies, it also inherits their security issues. Subashini S, Kavitha V: A survey on Security issues in service delivery models of Cloud Computing. NY, USA: ACM New York; 2012:305–316. Here, we present a list of vulnerabilities and threats, and we also indicate what cloud service models can be affected by them. These issues are primarily related to the safety of the data flowing through and being stored in the cloud, with sample issues including data availability, data access and data privacy. DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society Washington; 2010:18–21.
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