Mordan PB, 1973. Genital orifice immediately posterior to right ocular peduncle. I. Pulmonados desnudos.) In: Latvijas Universitates 72. 125-133. Robinson DG, 1999. [English title not available]. The land snails of New York State preliminary report. The Biologist, 53:118-127. Frest TJ, Johannes EJ, 2002. The Nautilus, 3(8):86-90. Agudo-Padrón AI, 2011. [English title not available]. The level of control in more complex, spatially varied ecosystems can be expected to be substantially less. Second Edition. While mollusc damage is characteristic to the expert, it resembles that caused by various insects with which it is often confused. The land snails of Mississippi. Juveniles of L. cinereoniger may be confused with adult L. maximus due to their uniformly colored sole.L. Wiktor A, 1994. Volumen alterum ([English title not available]). In: Natural enemies of terrestrial molluscs [ed. Penn ar Bed, 7:370-389. [English title not available]. Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz, 23:43-57. http://www.naturforschende-gesellschaft-der-oberlausitz.de/Publikationen. Stockholm & Upsala, Sweden: G. Kiesewetter. [BSc (Hons.) (Frassschäden an Gewächshauspflanzen durch Schnecken.) http://ipp.boku.ac.at/private/wf/Check_List_of_Austrian_Mollusca.html. A guide to invasive and native fauna of California. Aménités Malacologiques, 2:140-144. (Die Nacktschneckenfauna in Gärten der Stadt Görlitz (Sachsen, Deutschland).). Waitakere City, New Zealand: Waitakere Ranges Preservation Society, 130-139. Monaco, France: Imprimerie de Monaco, 559 pp. Córdoba Vargas CA; Sicard TL, 2009. Esmark B, 1886. Ökland F, 1925. by Davis GM]. Bank RA, 2011d. 0-253 pp. Meiklejohn RG, 1973. Faune de France, 21:1-477. Most natural enemies of terrestrial gastropods have proved not to be host-specific and therefore are not amenable to use in control programmes where effects on non-target species are of concern (Cowie, 2001). It can be abundant in modified forest remnants and secondary forests (Barker, 1999, 2006). Shells of the littoral zone, and freshwater and land shells in Jersey. Bulletin de la Société Zooligique de France, 100:349-359. CLECOM Project Checklist of species-group taxa of continental Mollusca living in Norway (CLECOM section 1)., Sweden: Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum. 413-438. The calcitic shell is situated beneath the hinder part of the shield, and is perceptible through the s… Simroth H, 1900. Terrestrial molluscs, intermediate hosts of Protostrongylidae on pastures in the Rabat region. Barker and S. Miguel, unpublished), where forests are structurally very similar to those of New Zealand.L. Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 30(2):745-765. Blue whale penises range between eight and ten feet, ... That is certainly the case for the leopard slug, which is so well-endowed that it has to go to extreme measures to reproduce. (Ueber die Gattung Limax in Russland.) A history of the land and freshwater Mollusca of Ulster. Cali, Colombia: CIAT. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS). Yang X; Qu Z; He H; Zheng X; He A; Wu Y; Liu Q; Zhang D; Wu Z; Li Z; Zhan X, 2012. 50. Buch. Waldén HW, 1965. Naturalised terrestrial molluscs in New Zealand: Origins and establishment. 104-107. 216 pp. Sterkiana, 39:11-15. In: Natura Somogyiensis, 1 29-40. Land and freshwater Mollusca of Norway. The establishment of the species as an adventive in many regions of the world by the early to mid-19th Century, evidently associated with early trade and settlement by Europeans, is testament to the propensity for L. maximus to be introduced to new regions. Latinam versione adscripsit Hieronimus David Gaubius. 2003-21.]. In: The Nautilus, 15 (5) 59. Dourson D; Dourson J, 2006. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 13(1):119-125. NatureServe, 2014. In most cases the biological control agent introduced has been a generalist, and pest snails and slugs collectively have been the target. In: Biologie de l'Amérique Australe, 2. The slugs of Ireland. In: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 8336, University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Pearce TA, 1993. European invaders in South America: terrestrial snails and slugs in southern Chile. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 58:47-48. To prevent species such as L. maximus from spreading, public education can raise awareness to reduce human mediated spread, coupled with robust border inspection and quarantine procedures. McCracken GF; Selander RK, 1980. Many gastropods are known as intermediate hosts of helminth parasites of mammals, including humans and their pets (Anderson, 2000; Grewal et al., 2003b). This level of population density is probably typical for the species in most habitats. [English title not available]. Lermond NW, 1909. Distribution of land and freshwater Mollusca in Corsica. Guernsey M, 1912. In other cases, like with the tiger flatworm, they can play both roles: each flatworm gives and receives sperm from its partner. US Army Garrison, 2010. La zoomorphose, ou représentation des animaux vivans qui habitent les coquilles de mer, de riviere, et de terre. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 20:125-146. 2004), with the development of a commercial product. [English title not available]. 212 pp. (Bemerkungen zu der Nacktschnecken-Fauna Bulgariens). Arlington, VA, USA: NatureServe. Simpson RD; Stanisic J, 1986. The landsnails of Madeira. Copulation of Limacidae. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 3(4):387-390; [1 fig.]. First record of introduced valencia slug, Lehmannia valentiana (Férussac, 1822), in Serbia. Diet. Cowie RH, 2013. L. maximus is a pluriennial or multivoltine, iteroparous species, with a lifespan of 2.5 to 3 years and with 2-3 egg-laying periods in their life cycle. Skrifter utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo. [English title not available]. South A, 1992. Elliott WT, 1922. Gastropods in subterranean shelters of the Czech Republic. Schwartz H F, Galvez E G E, Schoonhoven A van, Howeler R H, Graham P H, Flor C, 1978. Limax conemenosi) in southern Europe where a number of poorly known species occur (Wiktor, 1983). Each has a three-centimeter-long schlong, but they only extend a centimeter of their penis when copulating. In: Sterkiana, 39 11-15. Rollo CD; Wellington WG, 1981. Betta Ede, 1853. PLoS ONE, 9(5):e94969. Checklist of the land and freshwater Gastropoda of Lithuania. Terrestrial snail fauna in the Somes/Szamos River Valley from the spring region to the inflow into the river Tisza. 2), 3:382. A list of Caithness land and freshwater Mollusca. Latchford FR, 1904. [English title not available]. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 88(3):487-489. Hucintec, Fapesp, 182 pp. Natural Areas Journal, 30(3):322-327. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3375/043.030.0307. http://www.gbif.org/species. (Skandinaviska land-sniglar, limacina, afbildade efter lefvande exemplar och beskrivna.) (Antecedentes sobre especies introducidas en Chile: monitoreo y Control.) Slimaki pomrowioksztaltne (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora) ([English title not available]). http://www.tsusinvasives.org/database/leopard-slug.html. Baker HB, 1930. The distribution of gastropod molluscs. by Beron, P.]. During copulation, echidna penises operate on a part-time schedule: half the penis temporarily shuts down while the other two heads are responsible for fertilization. There is also developing interest in possible ecosystem consequences of L. maximus [and other adventive slugs] in forests of North America. In: Sterkiana, 57 33-39. With an annotated check-list. Iberus, 9(1-2):359-366. on Coincya monensis; Hipkin and Facey, 2009) and may cause plant mortality, especially in the seedling stage. In: Global Environmental Research, 8 (2) 171-191. Stange LA, 1978. (Relación entre la abundancia de babosas y el nivel de daño en lechuga bajo dos sistemas de manejo en Tenjo Cundinamarca (Colombia).) Schriften zur Malakozoologie, 9:90-197. 16 pp. October 28, 2010, Fairbanks, Alaska]. Anderson RC, 2000. If humans had the same penis-to-body-sized ratio as barnacles, our penises would be as long as a humpback whale, so about 50 feet in length, says Willingham. Eradication of terrestrial gastropods is generally not attempted, mainly because most infested areas are surrounded by habitat occupied by the species and therefore subject to recolonisation by immigration. It's found under the mantle. Most commercial bait formulations for slug and snail control are known to be attractive, and the mollucicidal ingredients toxic to L. maximus. Espècies nouvelle sou peu connues.) We’ll have to take Melville’s word on that one. Annual Bulletin of the société Jersiaise, 21(3):397-408. In: Ezhegodnik Zoologicheskogo Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk (Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg), 3 52-57. Weigand AM, 2014. The Nautilus, 66:54-59. Gotthardt TA; Walton KM, 2011. Dirrigl FJ, Bogan AE, 1996. Honolulu, Hawaii: Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. [English title not available]. Field problems of beans in Latin America. Slug – animal without an external shell. Freshwater and terrestrial Mollusca of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. Slugs are gastropod molluscs without shells or with very small internal shells, in contrast to snails, which have a prominent coiled shell.The loss or reduction of the shell is a derived character, and the same basic body design has independently evolved several times, making slugs a polyphyletic group.